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  • What Causes Leg Cramps?

    Leg cramps—often referred to as a charley horse—are painful, involuntary contractions of the muscles in your thigh or calf. They commonly occur from dehydration or muscle overexertion. However, in some cases, they can be a symptom of an underlying health condition, such as type 2 diabetes or kidney failure. Leg cramps can also be a side effect of certain medications.

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  • Haglund's Deformity (Back of Heel Bump)

    Haglund's deformity is a bony bump where your Achilles tendon attaches at the back of your heel bone. Also known as a "pump bump," it is usually caused by shoes repetitively rubbing against your heel. Because of its prominence, the bump is subject to constant friction, causing redness, pain, swelling, and callouses.

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  • Chronic Venous Insufficiency

    Venous insufficiency is a condition in which the veins have problems sending blood from the legs back to the heart.1 The blood vessels in your legs have one-way valves in them that prevent blood from flowing backward. When these valves aren't functioning properly venous insufficiency occurs with blood pooling in the veins, causing symptoms.

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  • How an Achilles Tendon Rupture Is Treated Without Surgery

    An Achilles tendon rupture is a traumatic injury that can cause significant disability after it occurs. This condition typically happens without warning and can make it challenging to walk or bear weight through your leg.

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  • What Is Pitting Edema?

    Pitting edema occurs because of a buildup of fluids that causes swelling, usually in the lower body. Edema is called "pitting" when there's enough swelling to cause a “pit" when pressing on the affected area. Non-pitting edema doesn’t leave a mark and is usually caused by fluids with relatively higher protein and salt content.

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  • Can Orthotics Help With Rheumatoid Arthritis?

    While there is no cure for RA, there are various treatments available to help you manage disease progression, reduce pain, and help you stay active. Orthotic treatments are one of the non-surgical and non-medication options you might consider if the joints of your feet are affected by rheumatoid arthritis.

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  • Is surgery the best option for ruptured Achilles tendons in young adults?

    An Achilles tendon rupture typically means surgery for many patients.A research team led by Laurence Ge, M.D., an orthopedic surgery resident mentored by Paul Talusan, M.D. at University of Michigan Health, looked at the difference in outcomes of those treated with and without surgical procedures for their Achilles tendon ruptures in young adults.

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  • What Is Abductor Hallucis Pain and What Causes It?

    The abductor hallucis muscle is located on the inner border of the foot. This muscle bends the big toe and moves it out to the side. More importantly, it supports the medial longitudinal arch, located on the inside border of the foot.

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  • Sprained Ankle: Treatment and Recovery

    Your ankle joint connects your foot with your lower leg. Three ligaments keep your ankle bones from shifting out of place. A sprained ankle is when one of these ligaments is stretched too far or torn.

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  • Leg Cramps at Night: Getting to the Bottom of Sharp, Aching Pain

    Nocturnal (nighttime) leg cramps are painful muscle contractions of the calf, thigh, or foot muscles at night that can last several seconds or minutes.1 They often occur without warning and while resting in bed.

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